Today in History for Oct. 16:
On this date:
In 1555, in Oxford, England, bishops Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley were burned at the stake for heresy because of their Protestant beliefs.
In 1679, a meeting of the Quebec council voted that liquor should not be taken to native villages.
In 1710, Port Royal in Nova Scotia was renamed Annapolis Royal in honour of the English Queen Anne. The renaming came after British troops captured the fort from the French in an uneven battle — the British had warships loaded with cannons and 2,000 troops; the French had a capable commander, Daniel d’Auger de Subercase, but only 300 ill-equipped troops. The French garrison gave up within 10 days.
In 1793, Queen Marie Antoinette of France was guillotined in Paris.
In 1815, former French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte landed at St. Helena, his isle of exile.
In 1820, after almost 40 years of separate status, Cape Breton Island became part of Nova Scotia.
In 1834, fire burned down the Houses of Parliament in London.
In 1840, New Zealand became a British colony.
In 1847, the novel “Jane Eyre” was published. Author Charlotte Bronte submitted her manuscript under the male name Currer Bell because, at the time, it was unlikely a book by a woman author would be published.
In 1854, Irish writer and poet Oscar Wilde was born in Dublin. His genius was best expressed in his bitingly witty plays, particularly “The Importance of Being Earnest.” He wrote only one novel, “The Picture of Dorian Gray,” and many short stories, fairy tales and essays. Wilde’s poems “The Ballad of Reading Gaol” and “De Profundis” were inspired by his two-year jail sentence for homosexual offences.
In 1916, Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic, in Brooklyn, N.Y. (The clinic ended up being raided by police and Sanger was arrested.)
In 1944, the RCMP patrol vessel “St. Roch” reached Vancouver after an 86-day voyage from Halifax through the Northwest Passage. “St. Roch” thus became the only ship to have made the northern crossing of the continent in both directions.
In 1946, 10 Nazi war criminals condemned during the Nuremberg war crimes trials were hanged. Luftwaffe chief Hermann Goering evaded the hangman by taking poison the day before.
In 1951, Liaquat Ali Khan, prime minister of Pakistan, was assassinated while addressing a public meeting in Rawalpindi.
In 1953, a report issued by the Roman Catholic Church in Canada discouraged teenagers from forming steady romantic attachments.
In 1962, the Cuban missile crisis began as U.S. President John Kennedy was informed of bases in Cuba equipped with Soviet missiles.
In 1964, China exploded its first atomic bomb.
In 1968, American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos sparked controversy at the Mexico City Olympics by giving “black power” salutes during a victory ceremony after they’d won gold and bronze medals in the 200-metre race.
In 1969, the New York Mets capped their miracle season by winning the World Series, defeating the Baltimore Orioles, 5-3, in Game 5 played at Shea Stadium.
In 1970, Ottawa invoked the War Measures Act following the kidnapping of British Trade Commissioner James Cross and Quebec Labor Minister Pierre Laporte. It was the first use of the 1914 statute during a domestic crisis. The act gave the federal cabinet emergency powers allowing it to govern by decree. It could be invoked when the cabinet perceived the existence of “war, invasion or insurrection, real or apprehended.”
In 1975, Reggie Cleveland of Swift Current, Sask., became the only Canadian pitcher to start a World Series game. The Boston right-hander went five-plus innings and took the loss as Cincinnati downed the Red Sox 6-2 to take a 3-2 series lead. Cleveland appeared twice more in the series, which the Reds won in seven games.
In 1978, the College of Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church chose Karol Cardinal Wojtyla to be Pope. Wojtyla, a Pole who became the first non-Italian pope since 1542, took the name John Paul II.
Also in 1978, Wayne Gretzky of the WHA’s Indianapolis Racers scored his first professional regular season point. He assisted on a goal by Rich Leduc in a 4-0 victory over the Quebec Nordiques.
In 1984, Anglican Bishop Desmond Tutu was named the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize for his non-violent struggle against apartheid in South Africa.
In 1986, the United States passed legislation penalizing imports of Canadian softwood lumber.
In 1987, millions of TV viewers watched as toddler Jessica McClure was rescued in Midland, Texas, after falling down an abandoned well on Oct. 14.
In 1987, Paul Hole became the world’s youngest heart transplant recipient, in Loma Linda, Calif. He was born three hours before to Alice and Gordon Hole of Surrey, B.C. Paul received the donor heart from an Ontario-born baby girl.
In 1989, Roberta Jamieson, a 37-year-old Mohawk, was appointed Ontario’s new ombudsman — the first Canadian native to hold the post.
In 1993, Roger Wallace Warren was charged with first-degree murder in connection with the blast at Giant Mine in Yellowknife on Sept. 18, 1992, that killed nine miners. In 1995, he was convicted of nine counts of second-degree murder and sentenced to life in prison without parole eligibility for 20 years. In 1997, an appeal court upheld both the conviction and sentence.
In 1996, at least 83 people died in a stampede at the World Cup qualifying match at Mateo Flores stadium in Guatemala City.
In 1997, novelist James Michener died at age 90.
In 2001, former Alberta Reform MP Jack Ramsay pleaded guilty to indecent assault of a 14-year-old girl in 1969 in Pelican Narrows, Sask. He was sentenced in Melfort to probation and community service.
Also in 2001, the Canadian Football League awarded an expansion franchise to Ottawa. (After four seasons, the Renegades franchise was suspended and it finally folded in 2008 before being revived as the Ottawa Redblacks in 2014.)
In 2003, leaders of Canada’s two conservative parties, Stephen Harper of the Canadian Alliance and Peter MacKay of the Progressive Conservatives, unveiled a historic deal to merge their parties.
In 2003, in a unanimous vote, the United Nations Security Council authorized for the first time a multinational occupying force under U.S. command for Iraq and urged UN members to contribute troops and funds for reconstruction.
In 2003, Pope John Paul II celebrated his 25th anniversary as head of the Roman Catholic church. (He died April 2, 2005.)
In 2017, European aircraft giant Airbus Group announced it was acquiring a 50.01 per cent stake in Bombardier’s C Series program for no financial payment, weeks after the U.S. issued 300 per cent preliminary duties on exports of the aircraft following Boeing’s trade complaint. The C Series headquarters will remain in the Montreal area but a second assembly line for the 100- to 150-seat plane will be set up at the Airbus facility in Alabama.
In 2018, Toronto’s Pride Parade lifted a ban on uniformed police officers participating in the annual event. Pride Toronto said it made the decision because the two sides had made progress on conversations related to “policing and institutional power.”
In 2018, the federal government introduced legislation to ban the practice of isolating prisoners who pose risks to security or themselves. Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale said the bill would replace solitary confinement with “structured intervention units” where inmates removed from the general population would maintain their access to rehabilitative programming, interventions and mental-health care.
In 2018, the B.C. government introduced a speculation and vacancy tax aimed at moderating the overheated housing market and helping to improve housing affordability by creating more homes for renters.
(The Canadian Press)